Analysis of the news of April 05, 2022

Study highlights economic impact of inappropriate antibiotic use

An analysis of antibiotic use for upper respiratory tract infections (URI) in Ghana reveals the dramatic economic impact that inappropriate prescribing can have on low-resource settings, researchers reported last week in Antimicrobial resistance and infection control.

Using data from the ABACUS (AntiBiotic ACcess and USe) project, conducted from 2016 to 2019 to explore community access and consumption of antibiotics in Africa and Asia, researchers from Ghana and the Netherlands conducted an economic impact analysis focusing on the inappropriate use of antibiotics for URI in Ghana. , where self-medication with antibiotics is widespread.

Their analysis focused on two situations of inappropriate use: 1) URIs treated with antibiotics, which did not comply with guidelines, and 2) URIs that were not treated with antibiotics but should have been. .

Health costs related to inappropriate antibiotic use for URIs have been estimated at approximately US$20 million per year, including US$18 million for Situation 1 and US$2 million for Situation 2. The costs combined travel costs and loss of income due to travel were estimated at approximately $44 million for situation 1 and $18 million for situation 2. Possible health care cost savings range from $2 to $12 million. dollars for situation 1 and from 0.2 to 1 million dollars for situation 2.

“Understanding the economic consequences of community antibiotic consumption practices is crucial for engaging key stakeholders and designing sustainable strategies to improve antibiotic use,” the study authors wrote. “This economic impact analysis supports this endeavor by providing baseline data to be used by future studies on the cost-effectiveness of such strategies.”

They added: “In a broader sense, the study can serve as a starting point for other countries, in particular LMICs. [low- and middle-income countries]to conduct an economic analysis related to the inappropriate use of antibiotics.”
April 1 Antimicrobial Resist Infect Control study

Bird flu strikes more Minnesota poultry as wild birds are infected across the United States

The Minnesota Board of Animal Health (MBAH) reported 3 additional outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza on poultry farms, bringing the state’s total to 15.

All of the new outbreaks involve turkey producers. Authorities reported the outbreaks in three previously unaffected counties — Becker in the west-central part of the state and Dodge and LeSueur in the south. So far, outbreaks have been reported in 9 of Minnesota’s 87 counties, and the events have resulted in the loss of more than 636,000 birds, mostly turkeys.

In related developments, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) reported 111 more avian influenza detections in wild bird surveillance, including first two detections in Minnesota. The virus was found in a bald eagle found dead in Dakota County near the Twin Cities and in a great horned owl found dead in Kandiyohi County in the central part of the state.

APHIS also reported several other detections in Ohio, mostly live bird test results in Ottawa County; in North Dakota, where many of the positive results were in wild geese found dead in Foster County; and in South Dakota, where the results came mostly from birds captured by hunters in Aurora County. So far, APHIS has reported 593 detections involving Eurasian H5 strains since mid-January.
April 4th MBAH Update
USDA APHIS Wild Bird Detection Page

CDC ends investigation into death Listeria epidemic linked to Dole salads

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said their investigation into a Listeria outbreak linked to Dole packaged salads, while adding 1 additional cases and deaths, for a total of 18 infections and 3 deaths in the multi-state outbreak.

The investigation originally took place in 2019 and 2020, but the agency did not have enough information to identify a source. In November 2021, the CDC identified four more linked cases from August 2021, and traceback information revealed that the illnesses were likely linked to Dole packaged salads.

Of the 18 cases, 3 were from Ohio; Minnesota, Iowa and Texas have each reported 2 cases; and 10 other states have reported a single case. The deaths occurred in Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, the CDC said. Of 16 people for whom information was available, all were hospitalized.

The illnesses started from August 16, 2014 to January 15, 2022.

“State and local public health officials interviewed individuals (or their families) about the foods they had eaten in the month prior to their illness. Of the 10 respondents, 9 (90% ) reported eating packaged salads. Of the three people who recalled a specific brand, two reported Dole and one reported Little Salad Bar,” the CDC said.

During several samples taken last fall, Dole discovered Listeria on the equipment used to harvest iceberg lettuce in plants across the country. Dole has recalled products containing iceberg lettuce.
April 4 CDC report

MERS sickens Qatari traveler

Qatar’s Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) has reported a second case of MERS-CoV in as many weeks, which involves an 85-year-old man who had been outside the country and was hospitalized upon his return.

In a statement, the ministry said the man had been in direct contact with camels and started having symptoms before he arrived in Qatar. He did not note the man’s recent travel destination.

On March 22, the MOPH reported the first MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) case of the year in the country. The patient is a man in his 50s who had contact with camels. No travel history was noted.

The latest case brings Qatar’s MERS-CoV total to 25 cases.

In a February update, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it had received reports of 2,585 cases, including 890 fatalities, since the first human cases were detected in 2021. The vast majority comes from Saudi Arabia.
April 3 Statement from the Ministry of Public Health of Qatar
March 28 Digitization of CIDRAP news